Baetens, P. and Brewaeys, A. (2001) Lesbian couples requesting donor insemination: an update of the knowledge with regard to lesbian mother families. Human Reproduction 7(5):512-519.

"About as Solid as a Fish Net": Symbolic Construction of a Legitimate Parental Identity for Nonbiological Lesbian Mothers. Mason Bergen, Karla; Suter, Elizabeth A.; Daas, Karen L.. Journal of Family Communication , Jul2006, Vol. 6 Issue 3, p201-220

Bos, H. M. W. et al. (2004). Minority stress, experience of parenthood and child adjustment in lesbian families. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 22(4):291-304.

Bos, H. M. W. and Hakvoort, E. M. (2007). Child adjustment and parenting in planned lesbian families with known and as-yet unknown donors. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics &; Gynecology, 28(2):121-129.

Bos, H. M. W. and van Balen, F. (2008). Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 10(3):221-236.

Bos, H.M.W. and N.K. Gartrell (2011) Adolescents of the US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: the impact of having a known or an unknown donor on the stability of psychological adjustment Human Reproduction 26(3): 630-637.

Cameron, A. et al. (2010) De-anonymising sperm donors in Canada: some doubts and directions. Canadian Journal of Family Law, 26(1):95-148.

Chabot, J. M. and Ames, B. D. (2004). "It Wasn't 'Let's Get Pregnant and Go Do It':" Decision Making in Lesbian Couples Planning Motherhood via Donor Insemination. Family Relations, 53(4):348-356.

Chan, R.W. et al. (1998) Psychosocial adjustment among children conceived via donor insemination by lesbian and heterosexual mothers Child Development, 69(2):443-457.

Dempsey, D. (2006). Beyond Choice : Family and Kinship in the Australian lesbian and gay 'baby boom'. La Trobe University. School of Public Health (Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society).

Downing, J. et al. (2009). Making the Decision: Factors Influencing Gay Men's Choice of an Adoption Path. Adoption Quarterly, 12(3-4):247-271.

Dunne, G.A. (2000) Opting into motherhood: lesbians blurring the boundaries and transforming the meaning of parenthood and kinship Gender and Society, 14(1):11-35.

Gartrell, N and H. Bos (2010) US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Psychological Adjustment of 17-Year-Old Adolescents. Pediatrics, 126(1):28-36.

Goldberg and Allen (2013). Donor, Dad, or…? Young Adults with Lesbian Parents’ Experiences with Known Donors. Family Process, 52(2):338-350.

Golombok, S. and Badger, S. (2010). Children raised in mother-headed families from infancy: a follow-up of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers, at early adulthood. Human Reproduction. 25(1):150–157.

Malmquist, et al. (2013). 'A daddy is the same as a mummy': Swedish children in lesbian households talk about fathers and donors. Childhood.

McNair, R. et al. (2008). Lesbian Parents Negotiating the Health Care System in Australia. Health Care for Women International, 29(2):91-114.

Murphy, Dean A. (2013). The desire for parenthood: gay men choosing to become parents through surrogacy. Journal of Family Issues.

Nordqvist, Petra. Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Family Resemblances in Lesbian Donor Conception. Sociology, December 2010; vol. 44, 6: pp. 1128-1144.

Nordqvist, P. (2011). Choreographies of sperm donations: Dilemmas of intimacy in lesbian couple donor conception Social Science & Medicine 73:1661-1668.

Petra Nordqvist (2011) ‘Dealing with sperm’: comparing lesbians’ clinical and non-clinical donor conception processes. SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH & ILLNESS Volume 33, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages: 114–129.

Nordqvist, Petra. ‘I don’t want us to stand out more than we already do’: Lesbian couples negotiating family connections in donor conception. Sexualities, September 2012; vol. 15, 5-6: pp. 644-661.

Nordqvist, P. (2013). Bringing Kinship into Being: Connectedness, Donor Conception and Lesbian Parenthood. Sociology.

Perlesz, A. (2004) Deconstructing the Fear of Father Absence. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 16(3):1-29.

Rimalower, L and Caty, C. (2009). The mamas and the papas: the invisible diversity of families with same-sex parents in the United States. Sex Education, 9(1):17-32.

Ripper, M. (2007) Fishing for taddies: emotion work in lesbian women's search for sperm donors in south Australia. Australian Psychological Society.

Ripper, M. (2009) Lesbian parenting through donor insemination: implications for the hetero-normative family Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review, 5(2):81-95

Ryan, C. L. (2010). How Do You Spell Family?”: Literacy, Heteronormativity, and Young Children of Lesbian Mothers.

Scheib, J.E. and P.D. Hastings (n.d.) Lesbian mothers and their donor-conceived children: family processes, child development and long-term outcomes.

Short, Liz (2007) 'It makes the world of difference': Benefits for children of lesbian parents of having their parents legally recognised as their parents. Australian Psychological Society.

Stevens, M. et al. (2003) Openness in lesbian-mother families regarding mother's sexual orientation and child's conception by donor insemination. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology,21(4):347-362.

Van Parys, Hanna, et al. (2014). Family Communication about Donor Conception: A Qualitative Study with Lesbian Parents

Woodward, B. J. and Norton, W. J. (2006) Lesbian intra-partner oocyte donation: A possible shake-upin the Garden of Eden? Human Fertility, 9(4):217-222.